d> Transformer


 It is the device used as a voltage regulator
Principle :- It work under the principle of mutual induction 
There are two type of transformer
1. step up transformer
2.step down transformer
 Step up transformer :- In this transformer the no. of terns present in the secondary coil is more than the no. of terns present in the primary coil (ns>np)
Step down transformer ;- In this transformer no. of terns in secondary coil is less then the no. of terns in primary coil. (ns<np)
Working ;- When an ac input supplies through the primary coil, then the change in flux associated with secondary coil cause emf in it.
 Quality factor
Quality factor;- It is the ratio of potential diffrence across an inductor or capacitor to the potential difference across a resistor
 Fraday's  law
 Fraday stated two law
1. Whenever magnetic flux linked with the closed loop or circuit change , emf induced in the closed loop
2.The rate  of change of flux is directly proportional to the induced emf

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